DEHRADUN, Aug. 11, 2023 (TBINN)

Red and Orange alerts have been issued by the Meteorological Department from 11 to 14 August 2023 in several districts of Uttarakhand.

Places including Hrishikesh, Neelkanth and others have received significant rainfall in the past 24 hours, I.M.D. said.The impact of E.N.S.O. on Monsoon Rain over North India has become exceptionally strong in recent decades while it has weakened for the central region, where agriculture and livelihoods are heavily dependent on seasonal precipitation, a new study says.

Notably, E.N.S.O., or El Nino-Southern Oscillation, is a climate pattern in the tropical Pacific Ocean that can swing between two main phases of El Nino and La Nina.El Nino, the warming of waters in Pacific Ocean near South America, is generally associated with weakening Monsoon winds and dry weather in India. La Nina, the opposite of El Nino, typically brings good rainfall during the Monsoon Season.

Led by Roxy Mathew Koll, a climate scientist at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology in Pune, the study found that the relationship between E.N.S.O. and Monsoon has evolved over time.While the connection grew stronger from 1901 to 1940 and remained stable from 1941 to 1980, it has weakened since 1981.

These changes in the E.N.S.O.-Monsoon interaction, however, are not consistent across the country.The influence of E.N.S.O. over North India has surged in recent decades while the connection has waned for central India, historically known as Core Monsoon Zone, Koll said.

Over south India, there is no considerable variation in the E.N.S.O.-Monsoon relationship.This means La Nina and El Nino now impact rainfall over North India the most and central India the least.

Monsoon trough, a band of low-pressure areas and depression-related variability has emerged as the primary cause of rainfall variability over central India, surpassing the dominance of El Nino and La Nina, the study says.The role of Monsoon trough and depressions in North India’s rainfall is declining.

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